Sanivation - Aqua for All

Sanivation: Fuel from human waste

Naivasha, Kenya

The concept

Sanivation is a social enterprise in Kenya which has developed a sanitation value chain concept using self-contained toilets which are leased monthly and from which the waste is turned into charcoal briquettes. Aqua for All has supported Sanivation from innovation to scale.





Sanitation economy, Toilet economy


2015 - 2019

Total value:

$4.9 million

Program Partners:

Aqua for All, VIA Water

About the initiative

Sanivation is an SME which aims at improving the health and environment of urbanising communities in East Africa through the deliverance of clean, safe, and efficient sanitation services.

Based in Naivasha, Kenya, it has successfully overcome the market failure for sanitation by implementing a privatised household sanitation model.

Sanivation installs home toilets for free and home dwellers pay a monthly fee for waste collection. Waste is brought to Sanivation’s premises where it is rendered safe for reuse and transformed into human-waste briquettes. This is saving trees and preventing environmental degradation.

This privatised approach for delivering sanitation services has significant potential to increase sustainable access to sanitation, reduce the demand for groundwater, and improve the quality of water resources.

Key outcomes

Number of people reached

Sanivation has improved access to sanitation for around 10,000 individuals (as of October 2019)

Market share

1,832 tonnes of fuel from human waste have been sold so far.

Environmental sustainability

For each tonne of briquettes produced, 88 trees are saved.